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Recording Techniques

There are many different ways of recording sound, the three main techniques are:

Mono: is used to capture a single subject, usually at close quarters using a single microphone. Wikipedia

Stereo: is  better at captureing movement, and or space around the microphones. There are numerous different stereo setups, links. Wikipedia

Ambisonic: is the process by which a numbers of microphones are used to create a realistic atmosphic recording. The recording can then be played back through a number of speakers minimum 4, usually 8, but can be 30 or more. Wikipedia

Which one you use will depend on what you wish to achive as the end product.

http://www.dpamicrophones.com/mic-university